IMPACT OF CONTEXTUAL LEARNING ON RETENTION OF KNOWLEDGE
Background: Case stimulated learning approach provides a link between basic and clinical sciences. Learning in a contextual clinical situation motivates the students and has a positive impact on their assessment. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of interactive and case stimulated teaching of endocrine physiology to medical students at the University of Lahore. Methods: In this comparative cross-sectional study, a total of 260 second year medical students of 2014 and 2015 batches were included through convenience sampling. In the first batch, a total of 137 students (43 males and 94 females) were offered interactive endocrinology lectures. Whereas, in the second batch, a total of 123 students (55 males and 68 females), were exposed to case stimulated teaching by the same facilitator. Multiple-choice questions were used to assess the students before and after the teaching sessions. The results of both sessions were analyzed by Student’s t-test. Results: Students who were taught through case stimulated methodology performed better during examination as compared to those who were taught through conventional methodology (19.8±0.4 vs 13.5±0.3, p<0.001). Conclusions: Students retain knowledge for a longer time when it is relevant and applicable to clinical context. Use of case stories in classrooms promotes better understanding, and the question and answer activity helps in making critical decisions in clinical practice. Case stimulated learning strategy can be adopted not only to enhance academic performance but also to promote contextual learning.
Pak J Physiol 2018;14(2):43–5
2. Gowda S, Bhaskar V, Nagaiah BH, Sengodan B. A study of the competency of third year medical students to interpret biochemically based clinical scenarios using knowledge and skills gained in year 1 and 2. Biochem Mol Biol Educ 2016;44(2):202–7.
3. Sathishkumar S, Thomas N, Tharion E, Neelakantan N, Vyas R. Attitude of medical students towards early clinical exposure in learning endocrine physiology. BMC Med Educ 2007;7:30.
4. Walters MR. Case-stimulated learning within endocrine physiology lectures: an approach applicable to other disciplines. Am J Physiol 1999;276(6 Pt 2):S74–8.
5. Walters MR. Problem-based learning within endocrine physiology lectures. Adv Physiol Educ 2001;25(1-4):225–7.
6. Bonney KM. An argument and plan for promoting the teaching and learning of neglected tropical diseases. J Microbiol Biol Educ 2013;14(2):183–8.
7. Joshi H, Singh G, Patwardhan K. Ayurveda education: Evaluating the integrative approaches of teaching Kriya Sharira (Ayurveda Physiology). J Ayurveda Integr Med 2013;4(3):138–46.
8. Murray-Nseula M. Incorporating case studies into an undergraduate genetics course. J the Scholarship Teach Learn 2011;11(3):75–85.
9. Herreid CF. Using case studies to teach science. Education: Classroom Methodology. Washington DC: American Institute of Biological Sciences; 2005.
10. Prince M. Does active learning work? A review of the research. J Engineer Educ 2004;93(3):223–31.
11. Anderson LW, Krathwohl DR, Bloom BS, (Eds). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: a revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. New York, NY: Longman; 2001.
12. Herreid CF. Case studies in science –A novel method of science education. J Coll Sci Teach 1994;23(4):221–9.
13. Bonney KM. Case study teaching method improves student performance and perceptions of learning gains. J Microbiol Biol Educ 2015;16(1):21–8.
14. Yalcnkaya E, Boz Y. The effect of case-based instruction on 10th grade students’ understanding of gas concepts. Chem Educ Res Pract 2015;16(1):104–20.
15. Herreid CF, Schiller NA, Herreid KF, Wright C. In case you are interested: results of a survey of case study teachers. J Coll Sci Teach 2011;40(4):76–80.
16. Carlson JA, Schodt DW. Beyond the Lecture: Case teaching and the learning of economic theory. J Econo Educ 1995;26(1):17–28.
17. Kirschner, P, Sweller, J, Clark, RE. Why unguided learning does not work: an analysis of the failure of discovery earning, problem-based learning, experiential learning and inquiry-based learning. Educ Psychol 2006;41(2):75–86.
18. Colliver JA. Effectiveness of problem-based learning curricula: Research and theory. Acad Med 2000;75(3):259–66.
Copyright (c) 2018 Pakistan Physiological Society
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
© Copyrights reserved. It is free for research and academic purposes only. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any shape, published, or stored in a retrieval media without permission of the Editors.