HAPPINESS IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS AND SYSTEMIC ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION
Background: Happiness is a state of mind which reflects an array of hormonal interplay within the body. These mechanisms have tremendous overall impact on patientâ€™s health in terms of enhanced immunity. Current study was planned to evaluate happiness in patients with diabetes mellitus and systemic arterial hypertension. The study also aimed to explore the effect of age and gender in such patients. Methods: This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted at Department of Psychology, Islamic International University Islamabad from February to May 2016. Thirty-six patients of diabetes mellitus and 44 of arterial hypertension were included through convenience sampling from Heart International hospital and Benazir Bhutto Hospital Rawalpindi. Happiness was measured using a validated and reliable tool â€˜the subjective happiness scaleâ€™. Mean happiness levels were compared between the groups using independent t-test and One-Way ANOVA. Alpha was kept at 0.05. Results: There were 36 (45%) patients with diabetes mellitus and 44 (55%) with hypertension with age range of 30-60 years and male to female ratio of 1:1. Mean happiness levels between diabetics and hypertensives were 19.13Â±2.64 and 14.11Â±3.98 respectively and the difference was significant (p=0.02). There was no effect of age and gender on happiness level in these patients. Conclusion: Patients with arterial hypertension have lower level of happiness compared to those suffering from diabetes mellitus irrespective of age and gender.
Pak J Physiol 2018;14(2):21â€“3
2. Sheldon KM, Lyubomirsky S. Achieving sustainable gains in happiness: Change your actions, not your circumstances. J Happiness Stud 2006;7(1):55â€“86.
3. Ryff CD, Singer D. Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. J Pers Soc Psychol 1989;57(6):1069â€“108.
4. Amirpour B. Relationship of critical thinking and its dimensions with university studentsâ€™ social self-esteem and happiness. Educ Strategy Med Sci 2012;5(3):143â€“47.
5. Boehm JK, Lyubomirsky S. Does happiness promote career success? J Carrer Assesss 2008;16(1):101â€“16.
6. Diener E, Biswas-Diener R. Will money increase subjective Well-Being?: A literature review and guide to needed research. Soc Indicat Res 2002;57(2):119â€“69.
7. Fowler JH, Christakis NA. Dynamic spread of happiness in a large social network: longitudinal analysis over 20 years in the Framingham Heart Study. BMJ 2008;337: a2338.
8. Dehejia R, DeLeire T, Luttmer EFP. Insuring consumption and happiness through religious organizations. J Public Econ 2007;91(1):259â€“27.
9. Oliveira Pinto SM, Alves Caldeira Berenguer SM, Martins JC. Cancer, health literacy, and happiness: Perspectives from patients under chemotherapy. Nurs Res Pract 2013;2013:291767. doi: 10.1155/2013/291767.
10. Visser A, Garssen B, Vingerhoets A. Spirituality and wellbeing in cancer patients: a review. Psychooncology 2010;19(6):565â€“57.
11. Koffman J, Morgan M, Edmonds P, Speck P, Siegert R, Higginson IJ. Meanings of happiness among two ethnic groups living with advanced cancer in South London: a qualitative study. Psychooncology 2013; 22(5):1096â€“110.
12. Lyubomirsky S, King L, Diener E. The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success? Psychol Bull 2005;131:803â€“85.
13. Mazza A, Ravenni R, Armigliato M, Rossetti C, Schiavon L, Fiorini F, et al. Mood disorders in uncontrolled hypertension despite multiple anti-hypertensive medications: Searching for a link. High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev 2016;23(1):41â€“6.
14. Wiklund I, Halling K, Ryden-Bergsten T, Fletcher A. Does lowering the blood pressure improve the mood? Quality-of-life results from the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) study. Blood Press 1997;6(6):357â€“64.
15. Beyrami M, Mohammadpour V, Gholamzadeh M, Bahmani E. Between happiness and enthusiasm for communicating the attachment styles of students. J Behav Sci 2012;6(2):105â€“10.
16. Siamian H, Naeimi OB, Shahrabi A, Hassanzadeh R, Ã‚bazari MR, Khademloo M, et al. The status of happiness and its association with demographic variables among the paramedical students. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2012; 22(86):159â€“66.
17. Frijters P, Beatton T. The mystery of U-shaped between age and happiness NCER working paper series. J Econ Behav Organ 2012;82(2):525â€“42.
Pakistan Journal of Physiology, Pak J Physiol, PJP is free for research and academic purposes. It can be downloaded and stored, printed, cited and quoted with full reference of, and acknowledgement to the PJP.